The relationship between person and tree, arising over and over again in many By participating in the close observation of individual life processes, in this case The first section examines Jain theories about the nature of the universe. This way one can break the continual binding process of karma to the soul and attain By definition, a Jin is a human being, like one of us and not a supernatural immortal nor an In essence, Jainism addresses the true nature of reality. . The remaining five tattvas explain the relationship between the soul and the karma. This page provides an overview of Jain beliefs about the soul. they do not create or destroy; it's not possible to have any sort of relationship with them; they do they don't reward human beings in any way, or forgive their sins, a god, and each soul is involved in a process of evolving towards that state.
Taking a different approach, Norway has developed a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of one action on the broader network of relationships within a given biome. Drawing from her own relationships with trees, ecologist Stephanie Kaza has proposed an approach to the natural world that engenders feelings of tenderness, respect, and protection. The relationship between person and tree, arising over and over again in many different contexts and with various individuals, is one subset of all human-nonhuman relationships.
I want to know, What does it actually mean to be in a relationship with a tree? Acknowledgment of and participation in relationships with trees, coyotes, mountains, and rivers is central to the philosophy of deep ecology.
In the course of studying mountains and rivers in depth, one sees them explode into all the phenomena that support their existence—clouds, stones, people walking, animals crawling, the earth shaking. By gaining intimacy with a small part of the whole, concern for the larger ecosystem arises. Each piece, no matter how small, contributes to the whole. To disrupt the chain of life at any link can result in dire consequences, as seen in the release of radioactivity in Chernobyl, the great industrial accident in Bhopal, the depletion of the ozone layer over the polar caps, and the extinction of various species of plants and animals.
As seen in the above example from Stephanie Kaza, an important impetus for environmental activism comes from the close observance and consequent appreciation of the external world. As our ecosystem becomes impoverished, humans take notice and respond.
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Ultimately, this concern for nature can be seen as a form of self-preservation, as the earth is the only context for human flourishing. Similarly, according to the Acaranga Sutra, Mahavira was moved when he observed nature at close range, noticing that even the simplest piece of a meadow teems with life: Thoroughly knowing the earth-bodies and water-bodies and fire-bodies and wind-bodies, the lichens, seeds, and sprouts, he comprehended that they are, if narrowly inspected, imbued with life.
The ethics of nonviolence as developed by the Jains looks simultaneously inward and outward. Jainism offers a worldview that in many ways seems readily compatible with core values associated with environmental activism.
While both uphold the protection of life, the underlying motives governing the Jain faith and those governing environmental activism do differ. First, as various authors in this book will point out, the telos or goal of Jainism lies beyond all worldly concerns. The Jain observances of nonviolence, for instance, are not ultimately performed for the sake of protecting the individual uniqueness of any given life-form for its own sake. The reason for the protection of life is for self-benefit, stemming from a desire to avoid accruing a karmic debt that will result in later retribution against oneself.
The result may be the same; a life might be spared. However, this is a by-product of a desire to protect and purify oneself through the avoidance of doing harm. In the case of some environmental activists, aggressive, direct action might be undertaken to interfere with and stop the destruction of a natural habitat in a way that might be seen as violent, such as the monkey-wrenching techniques used by EarthFirst!
In this volume the following questions will be posed: How does traditional Jain cosmology, and its consequent ethics, view the natural world? Is this worldview compatible with contemporary ecological theory? How might a Jain ethical system respond to the challenges of making decisions regarding such issues as the development of dams, the proliferation of automobiles, overcrowding due to overpopulation, and the protection of individual animal species?
Can there be a Jain environmental activism that stems from a traditional concern for self-purification that simultaneously responds to the contemporary dilemma of ecosystem degradation? In the chapters that follow, this topic will be pursued from a variety of perspectives. The voices included in this volume reflect a wide spectrum of approaches. Several scholars born and trained in the West take a critical look at the real prospects for Jain advocacy of environmental protection.
Jain scholars from India, on the other hand, see actual solutions in Jain philosophy for correcting ecological imbalances through a reconsideration of lifestyle and active application of ahimsa. Perhaps the closest analogue to environmental activism within historical Jainism can be found in the tradition of animal protection, as found in the many hundreds, if not thousands, of shelters, or pinjrapoles, located in and near Jain communities in western India.
Overview of the Volume The book has been divided into four sections, followed by an appendix and a bibliography.
The first section examines Jain theories about the nature of the universe, which then provide the context for developing an ecological interpretation of the tradition. The second section raises some challenges to the possibility of developing an ecofriendly Jain ethic.
Jainism, Dharma, and Environmental Ethics | Dr. Pankaj Jain - acryingshame.info
The third section, written by Jain practitioners, asserts that Jainism, with its emphasis on nonviolence ahimsais inherently sensitive to and practically responsive to environmental needs. The fourth section discusses the adaptation of ecological ideas among select members of the contemporary Jain community, largely among its diaspora adherents. Noting that neither Jainism nor Buddhism contains a creating or controlling God, he emphasizes compassion as the key for the protection of life.
Tatia suggests that the Jain advocacy of vegetarianism and protection of animals provide a possible remedy for the current ecological crisis. He provides a synoptic view of how the application of traditional Jain ethics can help one enact environmentalist values. Philosopher John Koller probes the Jain theory of many-sidedness anekanta as an antidote to the one-theory approach that drives the development machine and has led to environmental degradation.
Jains traditionally seek to understand any situation from as many angles as possible, as exemplified in the famous story of the six blind men and the elephant. By utilizing a multiple-perspective approach to environmental issues, Koller suggests that Jains will be better equipped to cope with such ethical dilemmas as the use and abuse of trees and oceans. Kristi Wiley begins her chapter with an assessment of the discipline of environmental ethics as it has evolved in Western academia.
This category includes things like worms and termites.
Treindriya - beings with three senses These have the senses of touch, taste and smell. This category includes insects like ants, beetles and moths.
Chaurindriya - beings with four senses These have the senses of touch, taste, smell and sight. This category includes wasps, locusts and scorpions. Panchendriya - beings with five senses These have the senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing.
There are four classes of these beings: This form of jiva experiences the greatest suffering. This includes all non-human animals above insects. This way one can break the continual binding process of karma to the soul and attain liberation from karma. With regards to truth, the Jain philosophy firmly states that the whole truth cannot be observed from a single viewpoint.
To understand the true nature of reality, it is essential to acknowledge the multiple perspectives of each entity, situation or idea. We must strive to be open-minded and embrace the positive thoughts and vantage points of other human beings, religions, and philosophies. The ultimate goal of Jainism is for the soul to achieve liberation through understanding and realization. Above all, these ideals translate into a religion of love and compassion not only towards human beings but also towards all other forms of life.
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Concept of God Jainism is a religion of purely human origin. In ancient times Jainism was known by many names such as the Saman tradition, the religion of Nirgantha, or the religion of Jin. Jin is one, who has conquered the inner enemies of worldly passions such as desire, hatred, anger, ego, deceit and greed by personal effort. By definition, a Jin is a human being, like one of us and not a supernatural immortal nor an incarnation of an almighty God. Jins are popularly viewed as Gods in Jainism.
There are an infinite number of Jins existed in the past. All human beings have the potential to become a Jin.
The Jins are not Gods in the sense of being the creators of the universe, but rather as those who have accomplished the ultimate goal of liberation of sufferings through the true understanding of self and other realities. The concept of God as a creator, protector, and destroyer of the universe does not exist in Jainism. The concept of God's descent into a human form to destroy evil is also not applicable in Jainism.
The Jins that have established the religious order and revived the Jain philosophy at various times in the history of mankind are known as Tirthankars. The ascetic sage, Rishabhadev was the first Tirthankar and Mahavir was the last Tirthankar of the spiritual lineage of the twenty-four Tirthankars in the current era.