Learn how to prove that two variables are correlated. Using IBM SPSS 24, this tutorial shows how to carry out correlation analysis and test. can i use four variable for Pearson correlation coefficient in SPSS? . in time 1, 2 and 3 Or do I have to calculate them all at once for a single. When examining the relationship between two continuous variables always look at the Correlation measures the strength of a linear relationship which.

Examples of variables that meet this criterion include revision time measured in hoursintelligence measured using IQ scoreexam performance measured from 0 toweight measured in kgand so forth. You can learn more about interval and ratio variables in our Types of Variable guide.

There is a linear relationship between your two variables. Whilst there are a number of ways to check whether a linear relationship exists between your two variables, we suggest creating a scatterplot using SPSS Statistics, where you can plot the one variable against the other variable, and then visually inspect the scatterplot to check for linearity.

Your scatterplot may look something like one of the following: In our enhanced guides, we show you how to: Pearson's correlation determines the degree to which a relationship is linear.

Put another way, it determines whether there is a linear component of association between two continuous variables. As such, linearity is not actually an assumption of Pearson's correlation.

## Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation using SPSS Statistics

However, you would not normally want to pursue a Pearson's correlation to determine the strength and direction of a linear relationship when you already know the relationship between your two variables is not linear. Instead, the relationship between your two variables might be better described by another statistical measure. For this reason, it is not uncommon to view the relationship between your two variables in a scatterplot to see if running a Pearson's correlation is the best choice as a measure of association or whether another measure would be better.

There should be no significant outliers. Outliers are simply single data points within your data that do not follow the usual pattern e. The following scatterplots highlight the potential impact of outliers: Therefore, in some cases, including outliers in your analysis can lead to misleading results.

The Bivariate Correlations dialog box will appear: Select one of the variables that you want to correlate by clicking on it in the left hand pane of the Bivariate Correlations dialog box. Then click on the arrow button to move the variable into the Variables pane. Click on the other variable that you want to correlate in the left hand pane and move it into the Variables pane by clicking on the arrow button: Specify whether the test of significance should be one-tailed or two-tailed.

We won't get to this topic for quite a while.

### Using SPSS for Correlation

For now, select the one-tailed test by clicking on the circle to the left of "one-tailed". You can click on the Options button to have some descriptive statistics calculated. The Options dialog box will appear: From the Options dialog box, click on "Means and standard deviations" to get some common descriptive statistics. Click on the Continue button in the Options dialog box. Click on OK in the Bivariate Correlations dialog box.

**SPSS: Calculating a Correlation between a Nominal and an Interval Scaled Variable**

This is what the Bivariate Correlations output looks like: The Descriptive Statistics section gives the mean, standard deviation, and number of observations N for each of the variables that you specified. For example, the mean of the extravert variable is 2. The Correlations section gives the values of the specified correlation tests, in this case, Pearson's r. Each row of the table corresponds to one of the variables.