SAGE Reference - The Employment Relationship
This is not to say that there is universal agreement on the nature of this common model of the employment relationship. In fact, scholars and practitioners from. Industrial relations or employment relations is the multidisciplinary academic field that studies . The perspective of the critical school is sometimes referred to as the conflict model, although this is somewhat ambiguous, as pluralism also tends . Dr Tim Baker's "New Employment Relationship Model" is a research-based framework that contains eight values. Can you guess what these.
Industrial relations has three faces: In this vein, industrial relations scholarship intersects with scholarship in labour economicsindustrial sociologylabour and social historyhuman resource managementpolitical sciencelawand other areas. Industrial relations scholarship assumes that labour markets are not perfectly competitive and thus, in contrast to mainstream economic theoryemployers typically have greater bargaining power than employees.
Industrial relations scholarship also assumes that there are at least some inherent conflicts of interest between employers and employees for example, higher wages versus higher profits and thus, in contrast to scholarship in human resource management and organizational behaviourconflict is seen as a natural part of the employment relationship.
Industrial relations scholars therefore frequently study the diverse institutional arrangements that characterize and shape the employment relationship—from norms and power structures on the shop floor, to employee voice mechanisms in the workplace, to collective bargaining arrangements at company, regional, or national level, to various levels of public policy and labour law regimes,[ citation needed ] to varieties of capitalism  such as corporatismsocial democracyand neoliberalism.
When labour markets are seen as imperfect, and when the employment relationship includes conflicts of interest, then one cannot rely on markets or managers to always serve workers' interests, and in extreme cases to prevent worker exploitation. Industrial relations scholars and practitioners, therefore, support institutional interventions to improve the workings of the employment relationship and to protect workers' rights.
The nature of these institutional interventions, however, differ between two camps within industrial relations. In the workplace, pluralists, therefore, champion grievance procedures, employee voice mechanisms such as works councils and trade unionscollective bargaining, and labour—management partnerships.
In the policy arena, pluralists advocate for minimum wage laws, occupational health and safety standards, international labour standardsand other employment and labour laws and public policies. From this perspective, the pursuit of a balanced employment relationship gives too much weight to employers' interests, and instead deep-seated structural reforms are needed to change the sharply antagonistic employment relationship that is inherent within capitalism.
Militant trade unions are thus frequently supported. History[ edit ] Industrial relations has its roots in the industrial revolution which created the modern employment relationship by spawning free labour markets and large-scale industrial organizations with thousands of wage workers. Not only will this enable you to identify gaps in your current team, it will also encourage you to take stock of who is performing well and who might be better off in a role with more authority.
Supporting employees even extends as far as helping them spread their wings and fly away to a new job when the time comes. Employers have the option to help employees or to stifle them — but only the former will lead to trust, higher skill levels, more productivity and more motivation.
Gratitude Gratitude should exist on both sides of the relationship, but it is probably a larger responsibility of the employer to recognize and appreciate exceptional effort from their employees.
Article Continues Below When employees consistently deliver and receive little or no appreciation, it can become very easy for them to become disheartened, frustrated, and apathetic about their job, which destroys productivity.
Industrial relations - Wikipedia
A simple thank you is often enough and this works both waysbut employers may wish to actively reward their employees for truly great work.
They should use their intuition and knowledge of the person to decide what this might be.
In some cases a discreet gift might be enough, while others might relish recognition in the office. Some companies even host annual awards ceremonies where outstanding employees are given public recognition for their achievements.
Overall, gratitude and recognition help to ensure that employees know they are valued and that good actions and efforts are repeated.
Managing the employment relationship in the USA - Lexology
Many state and local governments have mandated additional protected classifications, such as marital status, AIDS and sexual orientation.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act—this prohibits private employers with 20 or more employees from discharging or otherwise discriminating on the basis of age against employees who are age 40 or older. Americans with Disabilities Act—this prohibits private employers with 15 or more employees from discriminating against employees or applicants with disabilities. Family and Medical Leave Act—this prohibits employers with 50 or more workers from discriminating against or interfering with employees for exercising their rights to leave under the act.
Fair Labor Standards Act—this generally requires the payment of a statutorily prescribed minimum wage to all covered employees except certain younger workers, who may be paid a sub-minimum training wage for up to days. Other federal and state laws may require a higher overtime rate.
Managing the employment relationship
The Fair Labor Standards Act provisions contain numerous exemptions from the minimum wage and overtime requirements. The USERRA is a federal law that establishes rights and responsibilities for uniformed service members and their civilian employers. Equal Pay Act—this requires that male and female workers receive equal pay for work performed under similar working conditions and requiring equal skill, effort and responsibility. Immigration Reform and Control Act—this makes it unlawful for an employer to hire anyone who is not legally authorized to work in the United States.
All employers, regardless of size, must verify the identity and eligibility of employment of every new employee hired. Contracts Must an employment contract be in writing?
Are any terms implied into employment contracts? Legally enforceable employment promises may be implied in employment handbooks or policy statements.